PMC MDCAT MCQs On Bioenergetics


PMC MDCAT MCQs On Bioenergetics
PMC MDCAT MCQs On Bioenergetics

Bio-energetic simply means energy within life and refers to the biological energy that sustains living things and their activities. The flow of bio-energy in living beings occurs through pathways called meridians that run throughout the body, and which have been compared to the circulation of blood in the circulatory system of humans and animals. In addition to being associated with physical health, this energy flow can also be associated with emotional, mental, and spiritual well-being.

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Introduction to Bio-energetics

Bio-energetics is a special technique of self-help and therapy used for holistic health. It is used to promote balance in body, mind, and spirit by interacting with our natural electromagnetic field. The goal of bioenergetics is to achieve complete harmony between the two systems of life; macrocosm and microcosm.  Macrocosm refers to all things outside of ourselves: planets, solar system, stars and galaxies. Microcosm refers to all things inside ourselves: organs, cells, DNA, etc. One key goal of bioenergetics is to reduce stress which has been shown as an underlying cause of many illnesses such as cancer.

Anaerobic respiration

This is the process of cell respiration that doesn't require oxygen, as with plant cells. It's called anaerobic because it doesn't need air to survive, but it will die if the air becomes unavailable. Oxygen isn't necessary for this type of respiration because there are nitrates available that contain nitrogen. In some instances, bacteria can produce substances like nitrous oxide as a byproduct of their own life cycles, which means you can actually suffocate without oxygen for extended periods.

Electron transport chain

An electron transport chain refers to a series of proteins that carry electrons to create the chemical energy needed for cellular respiration. The electron transport chain has three main parts: The mitochondrial membrane, the electron carrier molecules, and the enzymes. Mitochondria are located within the cells of organisms and serve as the main site for cellular respiration where oxidatoccurslace.

Glycolysis/glycolytic pathway/aerobic respiration

One of the ways cells create usable energy from sugar, like glucose, is through glycolysis. This process breaks down the sugar molecules into smaller units to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for cellular functions. To generate one molecule of ATP from glycolysis, two molecules of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) are needed. The energy lost during this process is in the form of heat.

Light-dependent and light-independent phases/reactions,

During the light-dependent phase, reactions take place in the chloroplasts, which are filled with enzymes that store energy from the sun to be used during the night. This reaction is called photosynthesis. In contrast, during the light-independent phase, reactions take place outside of a cell in complete darkness.

Oxidative phosphorylation /cyclic and non-cyclic phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation and cyclic and non-cyclic phosphorylation are the two phases of cellular respiration. Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in the mitochondria, where food is broken down and electrons are passed on. The byproduct of this process is water, which leaves through the mitochondrial membrane into the cytoplasm.


Photosynthesis occurs in plants to help them convert light into chemical energy. A plant absorbs light through its leaves, which turns water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and sugars in a process called cellular respiration. Sugars that are created through photosynthesis, such as glucose and sucrose, can be transformed into starches or sugars which will generate more food for the plant.

Production of ATP

The mitochondria convert chemical energy from sugar into a usable form of energy for our cells - the Adenosine Triphosphate ATP. This process of using sugar to create ATP occurs in three stages: glycolysis, citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis starts a chain reaction that breaks down glucose (sugar) into pyruvate (a waste product). This process creates about two molecules of ATP for every molecule of glucose that enters the cell.

Role of light, water, CO2, /factors affecting photosynthesis

In blood, photosynthesis refers to an elaborate process by which certain species of plants use energy from light to turn water and carbon dioxide into food. This process requires three basic things:

Light - Plants use sunlight to make food. Without enough light, photosynthesis cannot happen.

Water - Plants also need a high water content, because water plays two roles in photosynthesis. First, as with many chemical reactions, moisture helps enzymes to react with other molecules more easily.

MCQs On Bioenergetics

Here are the MCQs from the PMC MDCAT on Bioenergetics. 

  • Chapter: Bioenergetics 
  • Total MCQs: 150

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Total Questions:





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